久伴24小时自助代刷腊八粥起源和两人有关，一个成就千秋霸业，一个身死他乡名垂千古,第一个大人物就是朱元璋。朱元璋是明朝的开国皇帝;第二个大人物就是岳飞。岳飞当年可谓是一员虎将。这两种传说不论真假，对于腊八粥来说，都是有一个很好的纪念意义的。现在人们喝腊八粥更注重的是身体健康，因为腊八粥是由多种食材混合而成。经常喝腊八粥，不仅可以保护人的身体，同时对于促进人的生长发育，提升人的免疫力。直接作用于实例方法：相当于对当前实例加锁，进入同步代码块前需要获得当前实例的锁。就像上面那样Monetary policy: Central banks change the quantities and pricing of money and credit to affect economic activity, the value of assets, and the value of its currency. They do this primarily by buying debt assets, thus putting more money into the system and affecting the spreads in expected returns of investment assets in the way previously described. When debt growth is slow and capacity utilization is low, central banks typically add money to the system, which pushes short-term interest rates down in relation to bond yields, which are made low in relation to expected equity returns (i.e., “risk premia” are high). Those who acquire this liquidity buy assets that have higher expected returns, pushing their prices up and increasing lending. Higher asset values make people wealthier, which encourages lending and spending. Conversely, when debt growth is too fast and capacity is too tight (so inflation is rising), central banks do the reverse—i.e., they take “money” out of the system, making cash more attractive relative to bonds, which makes bonds more attractive relative to equities, which causes asset prices to fall (or rise less quickly) and lending and spending to slow. There are three types of monetary policy that central banks progressively turn to: interest rate policy (which I’ll call Monetary Policy 1), quantitative easing (Monetary Policy 2), and finally monetary stimulus targeted more directly at spenders (Monetary Policy 3). Interest rate policy is the most effective type because it has a broad effect on the economy. By reducing interest rates, central banks can stimulate by a) reducing debt-service burdens, b) making it easier to buy items bought on credit, and c) producing a positive wealth effect. As explained earlier, when short-term interest rates hit 0%, central banks go to quantitative easing (Monetary Policy 2), in which they buy bonds by “printing money.” This form of monetary policy works by both injecting liquidity into the system (which can reduce actual risks), as well as by pushing down the spreads on bonds relative to cash, which can drive investors/savers into riskier assets and produce a wealth effect. Monetary Policy 2 is most effective when risk and liquidity premia are large, but its effectiveness is diminished when spreads between assets are low, because at that point they cannot be pushed down much further so as to produce a wealth effect and induce people to spend. At that point, central banks can target stimulation at spenders directly instead of investors/savers (Monetary Policy 3), by providing money to spenders with incentives for them to spend it. For a more complete explanation of this, see “Principles for Navigating Big Debt Crises.” Fiscal policy: Governments can impact the economy through their spending on goods and services, taxation, and legal structural reforms (by affecting regulations). While central banks determine the total amount of money and credit in the system, central and local governments influence how it is distributed. They get their money by taxing and borrowing, and they spend and redistribute it through their programs. How much they tax, borrow, and spend, and how they do it (e.g., what gets taxed how much and how they spend their money) also affects the economy. When they spend more and/or tax less, that is stimulative to the economy, and when they do the reverse, that subdues the economy. For example, the Trump administration’s big corporate tax cuts had a big effect on market prices and through it economic activity. Governments also make laws that affect behavior (e.g., create regulations that affect safety and efficiency, create rules that govern labor markets). When structural reforms remove impediments and improve a country’s competitiveness, it helps improve long-term productivity growth. Fiscal policies can either help or hurt economic activity. In the short term, policy makers’ use of these levers can either keep economies away from these equilibria (if they act too slowly or inappropriately) or can help speed up the adjustments (if their actions are timely and appropriate). Understanding these equilibria and levers is important to understanding the market and economic cycles. By seeing which equilibria are out of whack, one can anticipate what monetary and fiscal policy shifts will occur, and by watching these shifts one can anticipate what the changes in these conditions will be.